1-30 September 2018
[Open Studios 1/2 and 8/9 Sep]

Open Studios

Coastal Currents Open Studios 13/9/2014.

The ever popular Open Studios return with an incredible selection of artists opening their homes and studios to create a fabulous set of trails for you to follow.

Stretching from Bexhill right through to Udimore taking in St Leonards, Hastings, Fairlight, Pett and Rye on the way, the Open Studios programme showcases a wide range of artists and makers, from this famously creative area.

Whether you talk to the artist, purchase a piece of work, commission something unique or just browse, these two weekends are a wonderful way to allow you a glimpse of how these artists live and work.

2/3 & 9/10 September 2017

11am – 6pm unless otherwise stated

 

Click here for the studios in each area:

BEXHILL

ST LEONARDS

HASTINGS

EAST OF HASTINGS

RYE, NORTHIAM & UDIMORE

 

Britannia Enterprise Centre

17 great makers/designers/artists

Dreams of Tanzania

A photographic exhibition celebrating the wildlife of The Serengeti, The Ngorongoro Crater and Lake Manyara.

Dazzleship NN201

The boat can be seen from dawn till dusk. Dazzleship NN201, a Hastings fishing boat will be painted in WW1 dazzleship camouflage, to highlight the role of the fishing community during both world wars.

Morley Farm Barn Open Studio

Bill Watson and Angela Eames moved to Northiam, Rye in 2013 having lived and worked in London for many years. Their studio is newly built in the grounds of Morley Farm Barn. You are invited to view the work of both artists.

Brenda Hartill – Open Studio

Brenda will be showing a wide range of her works produced over 45 years, along with new unique abstract collages and mixed-media paintings. These include her embossed watercolours, encaustic wax and acrylic paintings. She is best known for her heavily embossed limited edition etchings and collagraphs, based on landscape forms.

Beach Hut 33

Penny Nice uses the fantastically diverse East Sussex countryside, stunning coastline and human interaction with such a wonderful environment, as a constant source of inspiration for her watercolour and mixed media work. Vibrant colours are used to portray her view of this locality.

Incurva Studios

Coastal Current favourites, Incurva Studios in the heart of Hastings Old Town, open their doors during Coastal Currents Open Studio weekends.

Beach Hut No.4

Hannah Kynoch – ‘Point of view.’ My new work describes my point of view when addressing the subject matter of ‘self portraits’. Come and see my new and old work at my Beach Hut Studio. Opposite the Marine Court on the lower boardwalk.

Jo McAllister

Sumptuously textured jewellery hand made in fine silver and high carat gold.

Agi Read

Agi is a printmaker working with traditional screens alongside digital techniques. Her work balances the expression of handmade marks, with the control of her print making techniques to convey a sensitivity in her subject.

Dan’s Garage

Come and see Dan Pearce’s Jack in the Green paintings and other recent work. Also prints and stuff and you might get tea and biscuits if you’re lucky…

Zoom Arts Studio

Zoom Arts is an established group providing local artists with opportunities to produce and show work. Current members include qualified contemporary artists, photographers and crafts practitioners; those developing their portfolios; and some exhibiting for the first time.

Pelham’s fine furniture & ceramics

Pelham’s fine furniture & ceramics was opened in 2016 by ceramicist Liz Emtage and furniture restorer & gilder Geoff Osler.

The Roomz

Natasha Elkins – A ceramist who specialises in hand built items inspired by the natural flora and fauna of Great Britain.
Hettie Barritt – A mixed media maker that primarily works in embroidery, braiding and acrylic, making contemporary jewellery and decorative objects.

The ArtWorks

The ArtWorks present Susan Miller’s powerful watercolour series ‘Family’ and Emma Delpech’s beautifully quirky ceramics from their recent MA show, Peter Groves’ latest challenging acrylics and flamboyant jewellery from Sara Barrufaldi. Prints, cards, offers and refreshments also available.

Scott Garrett

Scott will be selling a wide range of his unique and characterful Slipware pottery. Come along and meet the pots in person and you might just have to take one home with you!

Three Birds

Three creative makers at one address. Catherine Abbott – truly unique, multi-layered, stained glass vignettes. lightbirdstudios.etsy.com. Helen Shaw – handmade silver jewellery. Organic designs with a contemporary feel. shawthingsjewellery.etsy.com. Hannah Griffiths – beautiful mosaic artworks and small paintings.

Alice Pickering: Paintings

Celebrating what lies beyond everyday experience. Layers of paint and collage are used to build up images which are full of detail that is not immediately apparent, but which emerges when the piece is studied over time.

Workshop Otruta

Olesia Savenko is a Ukrainian artist, fashion designer & book illustrator, who has recently moved to Hastings. View her new series of watercolour “Men”, her big bizarre jewellery, Ukrainian headbands & embroidered boho dresses. I hope you will find something delicious at Workshop Otruta.

Tom Banks Studio

Paintings depicting nocturnal or near dark scenes. With this shift from day to night the mundane acquires a new beauty, as well as a sense of unease.

Marina Studios

Marina Studios is an informal resource centre for artists in St Leonards. It offers individual studio spaces, an open studio space suitable for Photography and other creative uses including dance and drawing as well as an etching press, a screen printing press and a kiln. There are regular life drawing groups at the studios.

Jonathan Sanders

Through portraiture, landscape and sketches I expose myself as an artist who is influenced by family, environment and my own perceptions of beauty, and through my digital art I explore the graduated exposure of the idealised man.

Joanna Charlotte

Visit the studio and shop space of artist Joanna Charlotte whose paintings feature birds, butterflies and nature with a strong Japanese influence. Original art, cards, giclee prints, porcelain and other gifts will all be available for sale.

The Blue Bee

The Blue Bee is a studio and teaching space for jewellery making from complete beginners to vintage upcycling, chain maille and metal clay. We also repair jewellery as well as retailing cards and prints by local artists.

Alex Leadbeater

Energetic waves and tranquil horizons, rusty jugs and roosting birds. Paintings, prints and cards. Give your wall a sea view – buy the sea by inch, yard or nautical mile or have a go and paint your own.

Cribb & Hammer

Cribb & Hammer offers carpentry design & cabinet making services such as cupboards, shelving & wardrobes. We restore furniture, sash windows & doors. We repaint furniture & cabinets for homes & shops. Paint your own furniture workshops available.

Geraldine Wheeler

A mélange of colourful artwork in ink, watercolour and oil paint.

Lawn Studio: Fabulous Creatures

Expect to see Katia Giordanella’s unicorns and sacred cat, Rachel Lever’s Gardens of Eden, Wendy Smith’s Earthly Delights, Mara Garati’s sculptural and couture jewellery and a garden installation by special guest fashion high-flyer Freya Von Bulow aka Maika Crampton.

Sea Whistle studio

Hand carved plaster reliefs by Bernard Jim Fox-Watercolours & paintings by Esther Fox- Decoupage & textiles by Susannah Appleyard.

Beach Hut 10 East of Haven

The sea, the weather and Beach Hut 10 with paintings, ceramics, cards and accessories by Andy Young, Mary Young and Rachel Tomlin.

Prue Theobalds

Drawings in mixed media of plants and natural and found objects, many with a relevance to time and place.

Luiza Machado

A room with a retrospective view – then and now.

The Old Chemist

Marie-Louise Miller is known for her paintings of the female form. She also creates large-scale abstract ‘colour poems’ for clients worldwide and teaches drawing and colour theory. She shares the studio with Super8 afi cionado Mauricio Vincenzi of Endwell Productions and SLIFF.

Adrienne Hunter and Nick Snelling

Adrienne Hunter and Nick Snelling both work from their studios in their garden. Nick’s luminous oil paintings of sea and headland are inspired by the local coastline and his swims around it. Adrienne’s vigorous , large-scale drawings of cliffs and plant life convey a strong sense of place.

Mission Chapel

Original artwork from two multi-media artists. Yvette Glaze – textural prints and ceramics. Helen Rawlinson – figurative prints and paintings. Also a selection of textile and recycled jewellery.

Hans Seawright

I make 2d and 3d pieces from paper, canvas, plaster and wood to scratch whatever itch is most pressing and use drawing to find the best way forward.

Rachel Glittenberg

Using a mix of her imagination, life drawings & photographic references, Rachel Glittenberg’s oil paintings borrow elements from history and folklore to explore what it means to be a woman in the 21st Century. Paintings, drawings, cards and prints will be on sale.

Polish Art Centre

Polish Art Centre in Hastings welcomes all to enjoy the art of international Polish Artist living and creating in East Sussex, UK. Oil, pastel, graphics, photography international art and other techinques are used for viewer’s enjoyment and appreciation by our magic art masters: Magic colours of sound – Jacek Krzysik, Magestic Earthlings – Kathlin Austin, intentional art- Ewald Smykomsky, Quantum Universe – Trinity Austin.

6 The Green

This year we are showing work by: Atul Vohora: a painter who lives and works in London. Both joyful and questioning, these paintings are the result of a deep commitment to image making and the complicated business of living. David Reeve: oil paintings and collage inspired by Hastings fishermen’s beach and Dungeness’ seemingly wild and derelict landscape.

George Robertson

My subjects are often taken from local East Sussex scenery. I also paint more abstract subjects. Recently exploring claustrophobic subjects within a landscape.

Harman/Bachenė

Anna Bachène (Collectable Icons), mixed media collage artist. Original artworkprints/cards/small icons. Maureen Harman, variety of paintings in mixed media. Two very different styles with a theme of bright colours running through both sets of work.

Urban Nomad – Marjolyn Schreuder

Newly installed by the sea; my home is my studio where living and working are in harmony and mutually inclusive. I make felt and I paint on silk – clothes, hats, scarves, bags, wall hangings and more. Located at the end of Sedlescombe Gardens on the corner.

WALLPAPER by Deborah Bowness

Wallpaper maker Deborah Bowness invites you to drop into the new Print Room which has finally been relocated from Yorkshire. Printing will be in progress and works for sale.

Anna Malni

Linocuts, woodcuts, etchings, sketches, cards, ceramics, prints and portraits of people and animals by commission. Also pop-up Hollywood photo booth, elegant digital portraits available instantly

Oska Lappin

Stars And Stripes…My Eyes Do Cry…So What Miles Trumpets Kind Of Blue…Red For Blood And White For Everything Else…’ ‘Scary America’ Told In Mixed Media Woodcuts.

Killin_tomas

Hard slog. Top floor …but big tøni makes it.

Alexis Mary Ceramics

Stoneware sculptural forms to view, purchase, commission. Based in the heart of St Leonard’s creative community, Alexis Mary creates forms & vessels inspired by the magic of the natural world as she sees it.

St Leonarts

View artworks by students at St Leonarts. Classes for children and adults, drawing, painting, experimental textiles and more. Take advantage of our 25% Coastal Currents discount on courses booked over the two weekends, also see oil painting by Emma Hundleby.

East Sussex Recovery Alliance

East Sussex Recovery Alliance supports people in recovery from substance misuse and those affected. We use creativity as part of our program and will be showing photography, painting, crafts and creative writing from our members.

Sliver of Sea Studios

A diverse mix of artists and makers with a focus on traditional processes and work inspired by the natural world. Pop in for a warm welcome, some tea and cake, and view our handmade textiles, jewellery, prints and more.

The ClayDen

Ceramicists Licy Clayden and Benjamin Beckett produce unique one off pieces. Ben creates humorous sculptures of bird figures, mythological creatures and masks. Licy, influenced by the sea, hand builds sculptural vessels and bird baths using black clay and porcelain.

Study of Interiors

Satu Viljanen is exhibiting drawings on paper and glass, which offer minimalistic vignettes of designed domestic spaces and objects. Prints, postcards and cakes on sale.

Lone Ormonde

Storytelling through sculptures, paintings, collages and mixed media. Remembered dreams and found objects create little transformations and metamorphoses.

Tara Deighton Bridal & Bespoke

Designer Tara Deighton produces bespoke garments and textile pieces inspired by vintage glamour and couture crafts. The focus is on traditional craftsmanship and beautiful fabrics. The atelier takes commissions and makes one off and limited edition pieces.

Oak Passage Studios

A unique space in the heart of Hastings Old Town. Anna Pontonutti, oil and acrylic paintings, prints and cards. Siobhan Tanner, oil paintings and collage.

Black Winkle Studio

Paintings and prints by Claire Fletcher, collages and assemblages by Peter Quinnell.

Dominic Zwemmer

Working with homemade willow charcoal and pencil, I have a passion for wildlife, wild landscapes and seascapes. I’m inspired by the variety of interesting marks that can be made just with a piece of charcoal – or burnt wood.

Art on West Street, three fantastic venues, one street!

Three fantastic venues on West Street. Please click for details of each studio.

Sally Cox Sculpture Garden

Sally Cox has been carving in the local stone wherever she lives for 30 years. Her studio and sculpture garden on the West Hill is open for the first time this year: entrance is up steps on Plynlimmon Road opposite the top of St Marys Terrace.

David De Silva

Realist and Abstract and whatever happens between. If it excites me I paint it – or print it or make it.

The Beacon

The Beacon, Hastings’ best-loved secret on the West Hill, and home to an eclectic mix of artists including clothes designers, ceramicists, sculptors, painters, illustrators and print makers. Delicious home–made food in our lovely gardens, and licensed bar open.

St Clements Church Hall

Sue Townshend is a textile artist whose mix of painted, dyed, printed and stitched techniques form exquisite, richly decorated pieces. Within these pieces, the natural world is depicted, along with the human face, mood and our relationships with ourselves and our surroundings. Heather Stuart’s colourful illustrative painting style is becoming well known in her home town of Hastings. Humorous and warm images of seagulls and local characters are popular and collectable, whilst other pieces explore relationships and characters from other eras.

Number Nine

Fiona Denning’s paintings deal with revelation concealment. Barbara Powell-Jones works with contemporary and vintage textiles, many from other countries. Ella Yates creates sculptural pieces from fine porcelain. Glazed white often with gold lustre detail.

Landin Art Studio

Spanish artist Roberto Landin explores the acceptance of transience and imperfection within the philosophical Japanese aesthetic theory of Wabi-Sabi.

Jane Sarre Ceramics

Simple contemporary tableware and serving-ware with clean lines and subtle textures hand thrown in white stoneware with a palette of monochrome glazes plus seasonal accent colours. Plus new work inspired by the local area and seconds at reduced prices.

Jemma Wyllie

Ceramic animals and birds, individually hand-made and often fired using raku and pit firing, some mounted on vintage tools and reclaimed timber. Metal legs give animation and alternative surface treatments add to the unpredictability of each piece.

Anne Bertoluzzi

If you love unusual jewellery, step into Chapel House this September and find a world of vibrant colour, texture and enthusiasm. Venetian Bazaar has an eclectic mix that will not disappoint.

Claire and Bob Humm

This year we will be showing a selection of short films in a specially created cinema. Plus anything else we happen to be working on at the time! Looking forward to welcoming both new visitors and those we have met at previous Open Studios.

School House Studio

Oils on Porcelain. Hand painted and kiln fired, using traditional and modern methods. I love to paint birds, bugs, butterflies and all things natural, often with a unusual background or finish. Tea, coffee and homemade cakes.

Annie Soudain

I use my immediate surroundings and my imagination to create images for paintings, lino prints and fabric collages.

Anna Wilson-Patterson

Paintings, books and greeting cards inspired by clifftop coastal living in Hastings, Rye, Winchelsea and Fairlight featuring huts, hounds and allotments.

ART’S A JOKE!

Come to the Cliff Top Residence in Fairlight and be delighted. A garden with shed loads of art. Sculptures – short, tall, wide and thin. Something for everyone – bucket and spade brigade to the culture vultures – all tastes catered for!

Tim Riddihough

House and garden installations, sculpture, ceramics, paintings.

Dawn Timmins

A colourful and quirky artist taking inspiration from life, love and a silly sense of humour.

The Basketry Studio

Julie Gurr is an experienced basketmaker and will be demonstrating the craft of weaving with willow in her studio. A range of functional, as well as sculptural and decorative, items made using traditional basketry techniques are for sale.

Cash, Clash & Climate

Cash, Clash & Climate by Maslen & Mehra in collaboration with local street artists Shuby and Delete. This large installation invites visitors to ponder the complexities of living today by posing questions about political, social and economic structures, social unrest and environmental issues.

Origin

Origin: Rise, beginning, the place or moment where something begins to exist. An exhibition of paintings by Rebecca Youssefi in the remarkable setting of the world’s largest subterranean skate park.

Faceless Exhibition

The Global Slavery Index estimates that there are 45.8 million people currently in slavery: men, women and children, to you and me, faceless and nameless. Some are enslaved in Hastings today. A collaboration between King’s Church and Hastings Anti-Trafficking Hub, which raises awareness and supports victims of modern slavery locally. Faceless includes photographs and artwork from local artists at King’s.

Performances and workshops at Hastings Actors Studio

A Kick In The Teeth, Joan of Arc and other stories. Performances by members of the Hastings Actors Studio. Introduction to Meisner acting technique workshops: Learn the key principles that are the foundation of the technique that enables actors to ‘live truthfully in the given imaginary circumstances’. Fee for performances and workshops: pay what you can, in advance to confirm your place.

Residency365 @ The Space

Visible from dawn until dusk. Working site responsively, Louise and Nicole create temporal interventions in ‘borrowed’ spaces. Collaborating over the past year, they have inhabited spaces in the UK, Belgium and France. Returning to St Leonards, they will be spending time during September inhabiting and responding to a new space with new possibilities.

Arthur Tidy & Sons

Sales of the Unexpected- Arthur Tidy & Son, the oldest surviving shopfront in Norman Road shall be offering an eclectic assortment of curios, garments, hand designed products, massage and art books. At night the shop shall become a window cinema alive with films from times gone by including St. Leonard’s Outrage, 1913. Damage caused by suffragettes.

Chris Parker – Fish and Chips Man

To coincide with the Seafood and wine festival, Hastings based award-winning photographer, Chris Parker has compiled a selection of images that celebrate our rich fishing heritage.

In Search of The Real: Lucent

Lucinda Wells has spent three decades searching for the mysterious and luminous essence of being that has been described by seers and teachers throughout time. Using film and photography she compulsively explores the everyday to produce images that intrigue, going beyond the reality they represent. The mystery deepens with this series of enigmatic photographs investigating the space of darkness.

A Show of Feeling

Everyday is made up of moments of drama, either large or small, that create feelings of happiness or pain, fear or calm, sadness or joy, among many others perhaps too fleeting to identify. An exhibition of paintings and original prints by artist Fiona Pienkowska

Something Fishy Going On

This show by Nick Hill consists of works around a maritime theme. The works are vibrant and colourful and will be shown along side Nick’s more surreal pieces. Guest artists will include Lea, Trisha Oakland and Sue Wells. Some of the profits will go to the charity, Mind. Claire Hamill will be performing at the private viewing.

Brenda Hartill – Print Demo and Talk

In addition to her Open Studio Brenda Hartill will be doing a printing demonstration and talk on her work

CREATIVE WORKSHOPS: pearls, paint & fishleather

FISHLEATHER FLOWERS (Jane Fryers): Learn to sculpt roses from salmon skin. BEAD STRINGING (Julie Tucker-Williams): Learn to string beads & pearls on knotted thread. PAINTED FURNITURE (Melissa White): Transform an old chair/stool with chalk paints, pattern & distressing.
All workshops £48 (+ materials) including light refreshments. Max 10 people.

Masks: an experimental installation

Masks have been used as protection, disguise, performance and entertainment since antiquity. SoCo Artists and friends present a collection of masks made from paper, wood, plastic, textiles, found materials, images or objects. SoCo Artists is a group of professional artists, based in East Sussex. The project encourages artists to experiment and work outside their usual practice.

Wayward IN RESPONSE TO . . .

Six female artists present new work, engaging with the specific qualities of this unique and historic underground space.

Restless Images

Restless Images is the second solo exhibition at the Arts Forum of around 60 new and recent artworks by local artist Ian Barraclough. If you’re looking for something visually different there are a wide range of quirky and accessible themes and styles at affordable prices.

La Bohème

Barefoot Opera bring their fresh, energetic ensemble style to one of the world’s favourite operatic love stories, Puccini’s La Bohème, an opera which champions youth and passion in a dark world. Featuring several young artists from the South East, including Lucy Ashton as Mimi, and Andras Jacobs on costume design.

Legally High

Legally High is an exhibition showcasing the work of contemporary artists Alexandra Drawbridge, Gerard Hemsworth, Charles Koning, Anne Parfitt, and Toby Tatum.

BUST II

Sweet and Dandy presents: BUST II. After the success of last year, Kitty Bang Bang and Betsy Rose return with another blinding burlesque performance alongside other world class names. Expect classy dance in a beautiful setting. Burlesque as it should be.

HIPHOP

HipHop DJ’s, Beatboxers, Rappers and more as Sweet and Dandy takes over the Printworks for a late night HIPHOP event. Expect live performances, battles and classic hiphop tunes as well as some really contemporary twists.

Little Mashers Screenprinting Workshops

Using stencils you will cut out your design and screen print with special chalkboard ink onto a T shirt, bag or canvas creating a blackboard which can be wiped clean and redrawn again and again.

2 artists:1 weekend

Two artists sharing a love of colour and light. Christine Verrijden using acrylic and palette knives, well known for her Norfolk scenes and winner of Best in Show at BAS summer exhibition 2016 and Vera Douglas who uses line and wash to create her watercolours of Bexhill. A unique opportunity to buy originals.

Storylines

MSL presents Storylines in partnership with Rock House, welcoming visitors to the 65 million year old White Rock in the alley behind Claremont. Five all new stories to hear. Five artists to watch at work.
All ages. Free! But you will be invited to spend – on stories, arts and food – and take part in a digital treasure hunt.

An Imposition of Structure by Paul Bartholomew

Paul Bartholomew’s paintings deliver poise, elegance and gorgeous colour. Working with geometric forms, he finds freedom of expression within their structural parameters – and is inspired by discovering the presence of this ancient concept across the spectrum of art and architectural history.

Roland Jarvis: Exhibition of work

An opportunity to see work by the late Roland Jarvis, a multi talented and immensely active painter, printmaker, sculptor, photographer, and animation film maker. Roland died aged 90 in 2016. Work will be displayed in his original 60 foot long studio at his converted chapel home.

Changing Places

An exhibition of artists’ video curated by FVU: Film & Video Umbrella, that links the industrial transformations across South Asia to buildings of historic significance in Britain. We are part of a nationwide tour and will host Residue by Desire Machine Collective, as well as a new commission by Imran Channa.

Objects from the id XIII

Group of artists comprising Phillip Cosham, Agnieszka Dabrowska, Peter Edwards, Tim Riddihough, Siobhan Tanner, Anna Thomson plus invited artists. This diverse group of artists, yet again, dive deep into their seemingly limitless imaginations and subconscious to bring you Objects from the id XIII.

Resolutions

Conflict is a part of living in groups and we all have the power to calm or inflame. The Craftimation Factory work with young people to explore stories of conflict, action and reaction through creative writing, prop making and monologue films. Explore their work at this showcase.

ALF FEST III

Hello, Diverse Art and live music flood the lounge/diner. Local creatives warm the cockles. Candle flickers In the rib cage. Grey matter dances. Spectrum shape shifting and possibly a cup of tea and a bun.

New Road Artists Open Studios

Over one night & one day New Road Artists open their studios at Rye Creative Centre. A rare opportunity to view & buy a huge range of work, directly from the artists & makers including painters, sculptors, printmakers, photographer & textile artists. There will be a bar on Friday, a cafe on Saturday & an exhibition in the gallery space.

Drew Copus – Stencil Workshop

A one day drop in stencil workshop, hosted by local street artist Drew Copus. Create and design your stencil, inside the stunning new hallway painted by Drew himself.

SEA ROAD: Exhibition

SEA ROAD: Exhibition Electro Studios Project Space, Seaside Road, St Leonards on Sea, TN38 0AL studio@colinbooth.com electrostudiosprojectspace.co.uk 07804 141579 Andrea G Artz, Colin Booth, Alexander Brattell, Karin-Marie Wach. Sat 23, Sun 24, Sat 30 September, Sun

The Tempest. The Shore. 2017 Outdoor exhibition

To be haunted by the drowned cries of a child, carried on the threatening gale, beneath the surge and shifting shingle on the beach, is to abjure the undying romance of the surrounding sea. Yet I cleave to the shore, and heave to the rope, tethering the distant sounding buoy. It will not break, will not succumb to the vast and silencing waters.

Salsa and Lindy Hop Dance Day

Hastings Salsa and Cinque Ports Swing Jive bring you a day of workshops and social dancing.

Vicky Craggs

Visit probably the smallest but prettiest garden to see where inspiration is gained for my watercolours and acrylic paintings. Nature features heavily including flowers, wildlife, hares and dogs. Originals, prints & cards available.

Art Studio 18

Art Studio 18 was opened in October 2016 by Francis Ives. There are currently 5 studio spaces in use by artists.